n the years that preceded the Turkish conquest of Constantinople and the ultimate fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Byzantine state had been restricted to the areas around Thrace and the Morea. The difficult circumstances and the insecurity that reigned led the artists of the Capital to seek safer places and new markets. Crete, an island which had been under Venetian domination since 1210, and which was flourishing economically, was one such place. Archival sources mention at least six painters from Constantinople who lived and worked at Chandax at the beginning of the 15th century; among them were John Apokaukos and Nicholas Philanthropenos. The wave of "artistic migration" which went on even after 1453, led to the spread of the art of the Capital to the island and was a contributing factor in the creation of a particular school of painting, known as the "Cretan School", which was to dominate the art scene of the post-Byzantine years.
Among the artists who lived and worked at