Apidima Cave is located on the rugged shore of western Mani, west of Areopolis. A systematic investigation of the cave has revealed important evidence on the earliest Prehistory of the Peloponnese and the Palaeoanthropology of the Greek area in general. However, because Apidima is located on the lowest part of a rugged shore, exposed to marine abrasion, this has resulted in the extensive abrasion of any Pleistocene deposits.

Excavations were carried out on four karstic openings at a heigth of 4 to 19 metres above the present sea level. Archaeological remains and significant anthropological finds belonging to six or eight individuals from different phases of the Palaeolithic were unearthed.

In a small niche of the lime wall of cave A, two ossifed skulls (肆󒓩 and 肆󒓪) were found in a Pleistocene layer. After a first scrape using mechanical means at the laboratories of the National Achaeological Museum, these skulls were dated initially to 100,000 and 300,000 years BP, and based on purely morphological criteria, they were attributed to the anthropological type Homo sapiens praesapiens. The skull from Petralona Cave in Chalkidiki (350,000 or 200,000 BP) also belongs to this anthropological type. These three skulls are the most important finds so far of the Lower Palaeolithic in Greece.
As regards the finds from Apidima, the excavators temporarily suggested the term Homo (sapiens) taenarius, that is Taenarius man. The dating of these anthropological finds, at least until greater accuracy with natural methods has been achieved, should not be considered final.

In the layers of the Upper Palaeolithic fossilized human skeletal remains were discovered belonging to the type Homo sapiens sapiens, that is modern man. The most representative sample is a skeleton buried in a contracted position which belonged to a woman 203 years old. The skeleton dates to 30,000 years ago and is compared to the Cro Magnon.

The scientific research programme at Apidima began in 1978 and is being conducted by the Archaeological Museum in collaboration with the Laboratory of Historical Geology-Palaeontology of Athens University, the Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploitation and the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.